Effects of Textual Enhancement vs. Input Flood on Learning Restrictive Relative Clauses and Wh-Questions by Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

Leila Nikbakht, Mehdi Vaez-Dalili


This study aimed to investigate the impact of using textual enhancement (TE) and input flood (IF) on learning restrictive relative clauses and wh-questions by Iranian Intermediate EFL learners. To this end, 60 intermediate EFL learners studying English at a language institutes were selected based on their performance on Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT), and were then divided into two groups. A pretest-posttest design was used in this study, and the instruments employed included the OQPT, a pretest, and a posttest. In the TE group, the participants received sentences in which the restrictive relative clauses and wh-questions were textually enhanced through boldfacing. In the second group, the target structures were taught through the IF technique. Both groups received the treatments in 10 sessions. To analyze the data, a set of paired- and independent-samples t-tests were run to respectively explore the statistically significant differences between pre-test and posttest scores and differences in the scores of the two groups. The obtained results revealed that both experimental groups benefited from the TE and IF techniques in learning restrictive relative clauses and wh-questions. Moreover, TE and IF had similar effects on learning relative clauses by the learners, but they had different effects on learning wh-questions, with TE having a greater effect on learning wh-questions than IF. The findings of the study offer some useful implications for L2 learners, teachers, material developers, and test designers.


textual enhancement, input flood, restrictive relative clause, wh-question

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